Rank ordering of 24 most frequently made errors according to the Cooper/Axelrod Study in 1995

This was a study that compiled the number of errors made in a standard sampling of introductory college writing during testing situations

1) wordiness [verbose]

2) misused word [usage]

3) incorrect or ambiguous pronoun reference [inc. pronoun] or [ambig. pronoun]

4) verb tense errors [tense shift]

5) missing comma between independent clauses [run on]

6) missing comma after introductory elements [no comma after intro]

7) problems with hyphens between compound adjectives [adj. hyp.]

8) capitalization errors [cap]

9) unnecessary comma between compound elements [comma in cmpd. not nec.]

10) incorrect spacing [sp]

11) missing words [missing]

12) missing comma with non-restrictive word groups [no comma non-rest.]

13) comma splice or fused sentence [fused]

14) problems in using quotation marks with other punctuation [quotes]

15) missing comma with transitional and parenthetical expressions and absolute phrases [no comma trans.] or [no comma abs.]

16) problems of pronoun-antecedent agreement [pron disagree]

17) incorrect preposition [inc. prep.]

18) misuse of who, which, or that [rel. pron]

19) unnecessarily complex sentence structure [KISS]

20) spelling out or using figures for numbers incorrectly [numb]

21) problems with apostrophes in possessive nouns [apost]

22) sentence fragment [frag]

23) missing comma in items in a series [no comma ser.]

24) unnecessary comma with restrictive word groups [comma in rest. not nec.]

Note: Abbreviations placed next to each type of error are for instructors who may use these abbreviations to indicate errors on student papers.